The United Kingdom has experienced a notable upswing in the enrolment of international students, as evidenced by recent data from the Higher Education Statistics Agency. In the 2021/22 academic year, the number of international students reached nearly 680,000, marking a 12% increase compared to the previous year. This growth can be attributed to the UK’s open borders and the reintroduction of the Graduate Route (previously the Post-Study Work visas). While this surge presents both opportunities and challenges, universities must address these factors to ensure a thriving and diverse academic environment. It’s never been more important for universities to examine the implications of this trend, and to develop tactics and strategies to harness the positives and mitigate risks.
Changing Patterns of Student Mobility
In contrast to other study destinations that experienced declines during the pandemic, the UK has managed to maintain its appeal to international students. The reintroduction of the Graduate Route aligned the UK with other study destinations that were adopting a welcoming approach, which in turn, further triggered international student demand. It’s important to note that while overall international student numbers have grown, there has been a significant decline in EU student enrolment, particularly in undergraduate programmes. On the other hand, countries like India, Pakistan, and Nigeria have contributed to high growth in postgraduate taught (PGT) programmes, which has become an important market segment.
Implications for Universities
The growing dependence on non-EU students, particularly in PGT programmes, has resulted in a decrease in the presence of EU students in UK higher education. This shift can impact the internationalisation of the classroom experience since an overrepresentation of students from countries such as China and (more recently) India, restricts exposure to a diverse and multicultural learning environment. Furthermore, the higher turnover of PGT students and the concentrated recruitment from a few key markets pose operational risks for universities.
Perhaps more importantly, potential changes in visa policies that impose restrictions (such as the change announced recently to restrict the number of dependents accompanying international students), could significantly challenge the international student recruitment strategies of UK higher education institutions. The most recent changes to policy is likely to have a large impact on Nigerian postgraduate student volumes, but the optics of such a change will surely impact all markets.
Strategies for Universities to Address the Situation
Diversify Recruitment Efforts:
Universities should invest in comprehensive recruitment campaigns that target a wider range of countries, especially emerging markets such as Vietnam, reducing dependence on power markets (such as China and India), and fostering a more geographically diverse student population.
Foster a Multinational Learning Environment:
Universities can actively promote the advantages of a diverse classroom and facilitate multicultural interactions among students. Encouraging student organisations, events, and programmes that celebrate different cultures can create an enriching educational experience.
Strengthen Partnerships and Transnational Education:
Collaborating with universities in source countries and regions to establish joint programmes and progression routes, and promoting transnational education can provide opportunities for students to pursue undergraduate studies locally before transferring to the UK or considering postgraduate studies on our shores.
Advocate for Supportive Visa Policies:
Universities should engage in policy discussions and advocate for visa policies that are favourable to students. This includes advocating for streamlined visa processes and post-study work opportunities that align with global standards.
In conclusion, universities can adapt and thrive in the evolving landscape of international education. With strategic planning and proactive measures, UK higher education institutions can continue to provide a world-class, diverse student experience by attracting a wider range of talented students from around the world, not just the top three markets.